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Bio-fungicides are the formulations of living organisms that are used to control the activity of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The concept of bio-fungicides is based on observations of natural processes, where beneficial microorganisms, usually isolated from soil, hinder the activity of plant pathogens. Bio-fungicides are made up of a beneficial fungus and bacteria, which attack pathogenic plants and colonize, causing them to thwart diseases. These microorganisms are usually and naturally found in soil, making them an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical fungicides. Additionally, using bio-fungicides in gardens as an incorporated disease management program reduces the risk of pathogens becoming resistant to chemical fungicides.

How do Bio-fungicides work-

Bio-fungicides control other microorganism in the four following ways:-

1. Through direct competition, bio-fungicides grow a defensive barrier around the root system, or rhizosphere, thereby shielding the roots from harmful attacking fungi.

2. Bio-fungicides also produce a chemical similar to an antibiotic, which is toxic to the invading pathogen. This process is called antibiosis.

3. Bio-fungicides attack and feed harmful pathogens.

4. Bio-fungicides has to be in the rhizosphere either before or at the same time as the pathogen.

5. Predation by the bio-fungicides will not affect the harmful pathogen. If it presents after it has infecting the roots.

6. Bio-fungicides soon start the plant’s immune defense mechanisms enabling it to successfully fight off the invading harmful pathogen.


It is important to Know when to use a bio-fungicides. As mentioned above, introduction of fungicides will not “cure” an already infected plant. When using bio-fungicides in the garden, it should be applied before the onset of disease development. Early applications protects the roots against attacking fungai and vigorous development of root hairs. Bio-fungicides should always be used in conjunction with basic cultural control of hygiene, which is the first line of defense for protection from disease.

Poonam Singh



A decomposer is an organism that decomposes or breaks down organic material such as the remains of dead organisms. Decomposers are involved in bacteria and fungi. Which all live organisms pass after death. These organisms complete the process of decomposition. Decomposition is an important process, it allows organic matter to be renewed in the ecosystem.


Raw organic matter is the primary decompose, which are unicellular saprotrophic fungi, which grow as a branching network of hyphae. The fungi can use their hyphae to penetrate a large piece of organic matter. Fungi break down enzymes into decaying materials by decomposing organic matter, after which they absorb the decaying material nutrients.


1. Bacteria are important decomposers. They break down any types of organic matter.

2. A gram of soil typically contains 40 million bacterial cells, and these bacteria make biomass on earth.

3. Bacteria are important in the recycling of nutrient.

Function of Decomposers

1. Decomposers play an important role in every ecosystem.

2. The decomposers, dead organisms will neither be broken down and renewed into other living matter.

3. The reason for the decomposers decompose, however, is simply, because they need to survive.

4. Decomposers are heterotrophic, meaning that they derive their energy from organic materials.

5. A dead organism provides nutrients for decomposers such as bacteria and fungi.

6. They can use to order to grow and propagating, reproduce their own species.

7. This is the side effect of this basic need to survive that organic material and nutrients are cycled throughout the ecosystem as other organisms consume the bacteria and fungi.


1. The decomposer breaks down the remains of dead organisms, including animal waste, into products of simple substances re-used by plants.

2. Decomposer makes the process of composting faster

3. The decomposer excretes the rest as nutrient into soil and gases like: – nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

4. plays an important role in ecosystem.

Poonam Singh

Soil Conditioners

Soil Conditioners

Soil conditioners are substances produced from organic or non-organic matter. When the conditioner is incorporated into and mixed with your garden soil. So it improves the soil properties, and adds slow releasing  nutrients.

It is usually used for various types of horticulture projects. Weed seeds are naturally finished with this extracted material. Over time, the soil tends becomes compacted, which is bad for plants. Compacted soil can  negative effect on the root growth. Along with this, decrease the ability of plant’s to take up nutrients and water. Soil conditioners can add more loft and texture to keep the soil loose. Soil conditioner can come in many forms like cow manure, peat moss, EM1 and organic compost just to name a few. They can be applied in many ways to your garden. Some conditioners are applied after planting while others may be  worked and  put into the soil before the planting begins.

Generally it is added to improve soil properties and for fertility. Soil conditioners are involved in both natural and synthetic varieties. In addition, individual materials can be used as soil conditioners, because of their ability to improves the quality of soil.

The soil conditioner can be applied to soil using several different method and in varying numbers of applications.

Benefits of Soil Conditioner-

1. Adding the soil conditioner to your garden helps improves moisture retention.

2. It makes water easily accessible for the roots of all your plants.

3. cores soil does not retain water well.

4. The conditioner helps in binding together soil particles into porous granules.

5. It allows air and water to move through the soil.

6. Organic matter in soil conditioner retains moisture.

7. It is able to absorb and store nutrients more easily.

8. Soil conditioners increase the nutrient retention by collecting the nutrients scaping away from the roots, especially in soils that are sandy.

9. The organic matter is food for micro-organisms and other forms of life found in soil.

Poonam Singh

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